Reading. Types of task part 4 (Clone)

In this final part of the reading task section we are going to practice

Summary completion

Matching features

 

Summary Completion.

 

In these kinds of questions you will be given a summary of information from a text and there will be some gaps in that summary. You will either be given a list of words to fill the gaps with or asked to find the answers in the text without the aid of a list. Both types are the same but the addition of a list is the more common. Our example is with a provided list.

Your job is to insert some of the words from the list into the gaps, or if asked, to fill the gaps with words from the text.

There will be more words in the list than required to fill the gaps.

 

All of the information contained in the summary will also be contained in the reading text, but they will use synonyms and paraphrasing, so don’t expect to see the same words.

 

Skills:

Skimming for main idea
Scanning for specific information
Being able to recognize synonyms and paraphrasing

 

Tips:

1. Do not read the complete text.
2. Follow grammar rules to insert words in their correct form (noun, verb, adjective, -ing)
3. Try to predict the answers by reading.
4. Do not spend too much time on one answer. Move on, and return later. This also reduces the number of options you will have towards the end, which makes it easier to work out the answer.
5. Words come in the same order as the questions.
6. Try to eliminate obviously incorrect answers.

 

Process:

1. READ THE INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY
2. Read the questions, and note how many words you can write to fit the gap.
3. Skim the text to get an overall understanding. This includes an understanding of the topic of each paragraph (note keywords of proper nouns, names, units/numbers, places, etc..,).
4. If you have a list of words, look at the words and look for patterns like collocations, phrases, types of words (nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc..,).
5. Decide which part of the text the summary refers to. Scan for synonyms.
6. Read the part again.
7. When you decide which word to use, look at the grammatical form it needs to take.

 

Let's do out 1st practice.

 

Read the summary below, then read the text.

 

Summary

There is some _____ to show that people who are bilingual exhibit a different _____ depending on which language they are speaking. Some bilinguals also have two _____ cultural identities, meaning that they are able to _____ their behaviour effortlessly according to their cultural _____. This may involve changes in _____ of speech or in the use of _____ language.

 

A check of the words in the box, and the gaps in the text, will tell you if there are extra words. This means that you must choose carefully. 

 

The first thing you should do is look at words types. How many words are nouns (both countable and uncountable), verbs, adjectives.  The sentences will tell you which type of word is needed, so you can eliminate any which do not fit. For example in the 1st gap, "there is some......"  this word is noun because it is preceded by 'some'. The sentence also begin "There is.."  which tells us the noun is singular. If it is 'singular'  and uses 'some' it must be 'uncountable'  It can only be 4 things (words which might fit). 'Evidence', 'facts', 'characteristics' and possibly 'surroundings'. Facts, characteristics, and surroundings are all 'countable nouns'  therefore the choice should be 'evidence', which fits in with the text.  "There is some evidence to show"

 

This is how you need to approach one part of the task. Word type is very significant in aiding you when trying to identify the correct words.

 

noise evidence volume persona characteristics
body distinct surroundings facts adapt

 

Bilinguals and Personality.

Many people believe that bilinguals have two different personalities, one for each of the languages they speak, and that switching between languages makes bilinguals act differently. Although this may seem unbelievable to some, research actually supports this idea.

According to various studies, bilinguals who are also bicultural and are actively involved in both of their cultures, interpret situations differently depending on which language they speak in. Although everyone, monolinguals and bilinguals alike, is able to change the way they feel and interpret events (a phenomenon known as frame-shifting), biculturals do this without realising when switching between languages.

The changes are not only linguistic. As an English-Spanish bicultural myself I do find I act differently depending on which culture I'm immersed in at the time. I'm often aware of the fact that when I speak to other Spanish speakers my voice is slightly louder and I gesticulate more than when I talk to English speakers. Could we then say that bilinguals have two different personalities?
(Source: bilingualbicultural.com)

 

There is some evidence to show that people who are bilingual exhibit a different persona depending on which language they are speaking. Some bilinguals also have two distinct cultural identities, meaning that they are able to adapt their behaviour effortlessly according to their cultural surroundings. This may involve changes in volume of speech or in the use of body language.

 

When doing this exercise please remember that you are practicing the techniques above. Doing this often will enable you to become more and more comfortable with the techniques, which should lead to quicker recognition of answers, and therefore reducing the time you need in the exam.

 

Do the following exercises in the PDF's.

 

Singapore
Extreme matter

Matching features.

(This has different titles depending on which book/site you look at. Matching names, matching information, categorization are some).

 

This section features the task of matching information to several choices of: person, place, subject, topic, etc...,

You will read a text which will feature usually 3 things (3 people for example). Each paragraph will have information attributed to one of the people (A,B,C) You have to place the correct information with the correct object (in this case people).

 

Skills:

Scanning for specific information.

Skimming for overall ideas.

Synonym and paraphrasing.

Separating information about specific topics and retaining that information.

 

Tips:

The choice are always the same. Typically from 4-6 options.

The options may be people, places, civilisations, subjects, and more.

The information about each topic will mostly be in the same place in the text. Occasionally there will be a reference in another paragraph, but this is rare.

 

Strategy:

 

1. Read the questions carefully.

2. Focus on the names. Scan the text for the names mentioned and underline them. This will help you to find them quickly.

3. Some of the names may feature more than once. Focus on the single references first.

4. Reading around the names helps you see if the the information you need comes before or after the name.

5. When reading the information you need be aware of possible synonyms.

6. Once you have found a statement which matches a name, mark this as done( use a mark that suits you eg: a 'x' or 'ok').

7. Repeat this process until all are finished.

You can either check once again, or you can check at the end of the test. It depends on how much time you have.

Always try to leave time for checking. You may spot earlier mistakes.

 

Let's do an exercise to practice.  Read the statements and note any synonyms you can think of. (Click on 'Show Options' box).

 

Note the names of the people in the options list.

 

Study the text below (click on the 'show text' box).

 

This is a strategy I have used to locate the answers. 

 

First, I have underlined all references to names including the expressions "xxxx says". This makes it even easier to locate what someone 'says' about something.

 

Then I read around the names to try to identify any references to the statements.

 

Now the 1st statement reads 'believes computers have not instructed humans in the game of chess'

Keywords = believes - instructed. (The topic is humans and computers, and there are numerous references to these, so we can ignore these as keywords but use them to locate information).

 

I then note down the references and look for meaning. this involves looking for synonyms and paraphrasing.

 

Instructed = teach, guide, educate.  believes = thinks, opines, is of the opinion, admits, concludes.

 

We now read around the names looking for references.

 

But Soltis says they haven’t imparted much wisdom about the game.  Soltis says. “We would teach them how to play chess. They would teach us more about chess. They haven’t lived up to their side of the bargain.”

 

Here we can see 2 references to "instructed" - 'impart wisdom'  & 'teach'.  Reading the 2 sentences which both begin with "Solis says",  "they would teach us more about chess, but they have not lived up to their side of the bargain"  which means 'they have not 'instructed us(humans) in how to play chess.

 

The answer for this is B.

 

Now try to do the exercise to locate and match the remaining statements to the names.

 

 

Humans No Match For Computers On The Chessboard

 

Next month, there’s a world chess championship match in New York City, and the two competitors, the assembled grandmasters, the budding chess prodigies, the older chess fans — everyone paying attention — will know this indisputable fact: A computer could win the match hands down. They’ve known as much for almost 20 years — ever since May 11, 1997. On that day, IBM’s Deep Blue defeated the great Garry Kasparov who, after an early blunder, resigned in defeat.

 

Chess

“I am ashamed by what I did at the end of this match. But so be it,” Kasparov said. “I feel confident that machine hasn’t proved anything yet.” Kasparov’s confidence proved unjustified. In the years since, computers have built on Deep Blue’s 1997 breakthrough to the point where the battle between humans and machines is not even close. Even chess grand-masters like author and columnist Andrew Soltis know this to be true.

 

“Right now, there’s just no competition,” Soltis says. “The computers are just much too good.” And as it turns out, some players prefer to stay away from computers as opponents. “The world champion Magnus Carlsen won’t even play his computer,” Soltis says. “He uses it to train, to recommend moves for future competitions. But he won’t play it, because he just loses all the time and there’s nothing more depressing than losing without even being in the game.”

 

Magnus Carlsen, who’s Norwegian, defends his title against Sergey Karjakin of Russia, in November. Carlsen is 25. Karjakin, 26. They have both arrived at the highest ranks of the game in an era when a $100 chess computer can easily dispose of them both. That superiority had been pursued and imagined for decades. There was a chess match in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. HAL, the computer, versus Frank, the astronaut. But here’s the question. Do HAL’s real-life progeny — computers that can see 30 moves into the future — play the game differently? Do they have a style? Have they taught humans new strategies?

 

Murray Campbell of IBM was part of the Deep Blue project. As he says, chess computers do play differently. They make moves that sometimes make no sense to their human opponents. “Computers don’t have any sense of aesthetics or patterns that are standard to the way people learn how to play chess,” Campbell says. “They play what they think is the objectively best move in any position, even if it looks absurd, and they can play any move no matter how ugly it is.”

 

Human chess players bring preconceptions to the board; computers are unbound by habit. And, unlike people, computers love to retreat, Soltis says. “And if you see a game in which one of the players is doing a lot of retreating mysteriously and so on, and the game goes on forever and ever, that’s a computer,” he says.

 

Susan Polgar is a grandmaster and a six-time national collegiate champion chess coach. Computers do all that retreating, she says, because they’re not slaves to human nature. Humans, she says, don’t like to admit a mistake unless they really have to. “And in those borderline cases when it’s not obvious that you have to retreat, chess players tend to not like to retreat,” Polgar says. “Let’s say you move a knight forward towards your opponent’s king, attacking. Unless you absolutely have to retreat, you rather try to follow up that attack by bringing more pieces to attack your opponent’s king.” Computers display no such stubbornness. “A computer, if it calculates that the best move is to retreat, it has absolutely no psychological boundaries holding it back from retreating,” Polgar says.

 

One of the human players in November’s match, Magnus Carlsen, the world champion, was described as playing a very un-computer like game of chess. Polgar says this means Carlsen can win with different kinds of strategy, and he might choose his strategy based on what he knows about his opponent. “Against one opponent that loves having queens on the board — the most dangerous attacking piece — he would make sure, you know, try to get rid of the queens as soon as possible and put his opponent in a more uncomfortable setting on the chessboard,” Polgar says.

 

To the great human chess champion, understanding the foibles of his foe can be a key to victory. To a computer, all opponents look the same. Polgar says computers are great training aids for her chess teams. And she says, computers have solved several age-old chess problems — questions of how to win when there are very few pieces on the board.

 

Soltis is less charitable to the machines that humans programmed to play chess, and that now beat their former masters routinely. They may have nerves of silicon. They may be indefatigable and immune to psychological distraction. But Soltis says they haven’t imparted much wisdom about the game. “We sort of had a social contract, we thought, with the computers many years ago,” Soltis says. “We would teach them how to play chess. They would teach us more about chess. They haven’t lived up to their side of the bargain.”

 

The real payoff from teaching computers to play chess may not have anything to do with the game. Campbell, from IBM, says it’s a lesson taken from that experience that has propelled artificial intelligence research in the years since. “Humans have certain strengths and weaknesses. Computers have certain strengths and weaknesses,” Campbell says. “Computers plus humans do better than either one alone.” Computers have the advantage of brute force. They can mine huge amounts of information. But humans, Campbell says, still excel at evaluating that information and coming up with a plan that will work.

 

He says that’s especially true as researchers use computers to take on messy, real-world problems full of unknowns, like combating climate change or curing cancer. “I think many of the common board games don’t have the unknown element in it,” Campbell says. “They may have chance elements. A game like backgammon, for example, there’s roll of the dice, but you can calculate the probabilities quite accurately. When there’s unknowns, there’s things … just are hidden from you, and even the alternatives, the things you can do, can’t be set down and enumerated. There’s maybe too many possible actions you can take. That’s the challenge for modern artificial intelligence research.”

 

Meanwhile, back at the chessboard, two of the best human players in the world — Carlsen and Karjakin — play their championship in Manhattan’s South Street Seaport, starting Nov. 11.

 

A: Gary Kasparov
B: Andrew Soltis
C: Magnus Carlsen
D: Murray Campbell
E: Susan Polgar

 

For questions 1 to 5  match the people with what they think about chess

 

1. believes computers have not instructed humans in the game of chess
2. thinks humans are too irrational
3. adjusts tactics to suit the player
4. is optimistic that humans still have a chance
5. thinks humans play with more beauty

 

Answers

1.B - Andrew Solis says "that computers would teach us more about the game, but have not lived up to their side of the bargain.
2.E - Susan Polger 'she says, because they’re not slaves to human nature. Humans, she says, don’t like to admit a mistake unless they really have to'.  "Computers display no such stubbornness. “A computer, if it calculates that the best move is to retreat, it has absolutely no psychological boundaries holding it back from retreating,” Polgar says.
3.C - Carlsen can win with different kinds of strategy, and he might choose his strategy based on what he knows about his opponent.
4.A - Kasparov said. “I feel confident that machine hasn’t proved anything yet.”
5.D - But humans, Campbell says, still excel at evaluating that information and coming up with a plan that will work.

 

 

For more practice please complete the 2 exercises in the PDF's below.

Elderly Japanese workers
Vikings

This is the end of the tasks section.  Please ensure that you practice repeatedly all the tasks to be sure that you follow the strategies, and arrive at the correct answers.

 

If you do not get an answer correct, DO NOT think "Oh well if I get at least most of them correct it will be enough". Ask yourself 'WHY IT IS NOT CORRECT' Do the question again using the techniques until you can find the correct answers. This will be invaluable when you are doing the real test.

 

The next section is a look at vocabulary, and how to approach it.

 

Salamat po ang mga estudyante.